Cancer Immunotherapy – promising way to fight disease

Cancer Immunotherapy – promising way to fight disease

December 9, 2017 Sentally 10

William Coley, MD known as the Father of Cancer Immunotherapy first attempted to harness the immune system for treating cancer in the late XIX century. He observed some of his patients cleared of cancer after recovering from an infection. As we know it now, protein called immunoglobulin exclusively designed for each infection can attack and destroy certain cancer cells.

 

All of the 500 types of cancer have one thing in common – mutated DNA. Their DNA is very similar but different from the one of healthy cells. Usually mutation is a reason for cell death or rejection. For example, transplant recipients have to take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. For still unknown reason, our immune system does not recognise cancer cells as pathogen and does not attack. How can we tell patient’s immune system – “Go, wipe out the tumour”? Promising idea to solve this problem has been inspired by already existent medical phenomena called passive immunity.

 

 

Step One. Two biologically non-related patients exchange their foes, each patient is injected with his/her partner’s cancer cells or parts of the mutated DNA. Similar to virus or bacteria those cells are destroyed and patients develop immunity to that particular cancer. In the blood of each patient appears that famous, highly specific immunoglobulin which destroys exactly what it’s made to destroy – cancer.

 

Step Two. Same two patients undergo reciprocal blood transfusions. Blood they receive contains the healing power of immunoglobulin specifically designed to fight their cancer. Also, immunoglobulin might attack healthy cells for that reason I mentioned injecting parts of mutated DNA, instead of whole cells, it should solve the problem.

 

The biggest roadblock for this treatment won’t be physiological but obviously, the legal one. Furthermore, pharmaceutical corporations are not interested to work in this direction – this is medical procedure, consequently it can not be patented.

 

Warning: Ideas presented is this publication remain an unproven theory, therefore, nobody shall interrupt ongoing cancer treatment because of it.

10 thoughts on “Cancer Immunotherapy – promising way to fight disease

  1. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) display an M2 phenotype that promote tumour immune escape. Here the authors show that Chloroquine (CQ), a lysosome inhibitor used against malaria, inhibits tumour growth by switching TAMs into an M1 tumor-killing phenotype by repolarizing macrophages metabolism.

  2. Immunotherapy is a promising new field of cancer research that is generating a lot of international headlines. It is a type of cancer treatment that trains and uses a patient’s immune system to fight cancer.

    So what does the immune system do? And how can it fight cancer?

    The immune system is a network of cells, tissues and organs that helps protect us from infections and diseases. It keeps track of what is “normal” in our bodies and recognizes “foreign” cells or markers. When the immune system detects something out of the ordinary, it raises an alarm and sets about to destroy the invader. For example, bacteria have different markers or traits than our own cells – so when they enter the body, the immune system sees them as foreign and mounts a response to attack them and prevent infection.

    Cancer cells hide from the immune system
    Cancer cells are also foreign to our bodies but are harder for our immune systems to detect. Cancer cells are our own cells that have acquired genetic changes that cause them to grow and behave abnormally. Since they start off as normal cells, they are better at hiding from the immune system. Sometimes the immune system can identify cancer cells but can’t mount a strong enough response to get rid of them. In other cases, cancer cells hide by hijacking our body’s safety mechanisms.

    Immunotherapy treatments help your immune system work smarter and harder. Researchers are studying new ways to help the immune system find, recognize and attack cancer cells. They are using a variety of strategies to do so (the most promising are described in this article), and some are already making big changes to the way cancer is treated.

  3. Based on the Patient Resource Guide, Understanding Cancer Immunotherapy 3rd Edition, this activity provides information about side effects that patients may experience while receiving cancer immunotherapy treatment and how to manage these side effects.

  4. SITC Cancer immunotherapy guidelines
    Developed by experts in the treatment of specific types of cancer, each consensus statement provides key indicators to help practicing oncologists determine when and how to best use immunotherapy to treat their patients.​​​​​​​

  5. Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events.

  6. Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events. Compared with systemic immunomodulation, local immunomodulation may enable more effective treatment at lower doses and, at the same time, prevent systemic toxicity. Local delivery of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may fulfil this role by acting as synthetic immune niches that boost anticancer immunity. In this Opinion article, we highlight the potential of scaffold-based adoptive cell transfer and scaffold-based cancer vaccines that, although applied locally, can promote systemic antitumour immunity. Furthermore, we discuss how scaffold-based cancer immunotherapy may contribute to the development of the next generation of cancer treatments

  7. These are exciting times for cancer immunotherapy. After many years of disappointing results, the tide has finally changed and immunotherapy has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapeutic strategies include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and natural killer cells, and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The recent success of several immunotherapeutic regimes, such as monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), has boosted the development of this treatment modality, with the consequence that new therapeutic targets and schemes which combine various immunological agents are now being described at a breathtaking pace. In this review, we outline some of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (cancer vaccines, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic viruses) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.

  8. Although children are affected by several of the same types of cancer as adults, the ways in which they develop―and the ways in which they must be treated―can be drastically different between the two for several reasons.

    The most common types of cancer in children under the age of 15 are acute lymphocytic leukemia, brain tumors, neuroblastoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, while the most common types in adolescents between the ages of 15-19 are Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, brain cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors.

    The survival rates for these different types of cancers vary, but overall, the majority of children diagnosed with cancer are able to survive long-term, thanks to advances in treatments, including immune-based therapies, over the past several decades.

    Unfortunately, some of these treatments can be damaging to these young patients and leave them with chronic conditions for the rest of their lives

  9. Our immune system has the ability to find and destroy cancer cells. But cancer cells can sometimes hide from the immune system and avoid being destroyed. Cancer cells may also stop the immune system from working properly. Immunotherapy helps to strengthen or restore the immune system’s ability to fight cancer.

    Immunotherapy is sometimes called biological therapy. You may also hear the term immune-oncology, which is the study of how the immune system interacts with cancer cells in order to find ways to prevent or treat cancer.

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